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Methodology of User Interfaces Design Based On Android

编辑:admin    来源:计算机毕业设计    作者:计算机毕业论文

Maoqiang Song

School of Software Engineering,
Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications,
Beijing 100876, China
Abstract. The main objective of this study is to explore how to design the user interfaces of handheld device based on Android. The methodology of UI design based on Android is summarized through discussing the different tasks of three representative roles --requirements analyst; UI designer; software engineer in the life cycle of software development. Most of the current research is to discuss the realization of the software applications based on the Android platform. There are limited studies on Undersign from the perspective of the different development stages ofthe entire project. This paper focuses on regulating the procedure of handheld device UI and effectively improving the efficiency of the design of Android UI. Keywords-Android; User Interfaces; Methodology; Design Procedure; Handheld Device; Smart phone
I. INTRODUCTION
In the era of 3G, such products of handheld device as smart phone iPad and so on are becoming increasingly powerful and diverse. The operating systems which support applications of these devices have become particularly important. With its significant Open-source characteristic of Google Android, it has attracted increasing number of developers. Currently, users not only expect that handheld device has strong applications, but also a friendly user interface. Products which possess good UI design will achieve better user’s demand and more profits. Thus this paper is aimed at exploring the methodology of designing the user interfaces of handheld device based on Android platform. This paper discusses the design procedure through the coding method used by software engineers, and also explores the principles of UI design from the perspective of three representative roles in the entire product cycle. Firstly, requirements analysts locate the target users and collect the
core user demands and transform the requirements into specific functions. Secondly, according the ideas and principles of the design of user interface of handheld device, UI designers design GUI (Graphical user interface) on the basis of the specific functions .Thirdly, software engineers implement a UI on the basis of GUI. It covers the basic elements that make up a screen, how to define a screen in XML and load it in the code, and various other tasks users need to handle for user interface. The methodology has been put into practice that implementation a UI of application in Android Smart phone successfully.
II. METHODOLOGY
The method of designing the UI of handheld device based on the Android platform has been divided into three parts from the perspective of the task carried out by three major roles in
different stages of development. Each part includes not only the preconditions necessary to carry out the method, but also usage of the method to design and implementation the UI of
one application of drawing in Android smart phone. The procedure employed by this paper will be described in chronological and role order by the following figure 1.
A. Requirements Analyst
Requirement analysis is stressed that the orientation and target of the product, product design is instructed but is not interfered by requirement .Design is an art and divorced from
reality, and thus needs to be qualified and instructed. Defining target user---The dynamics of social and industry should be on the first priority of requirement analyst of products. With the arrival of 3G era, handheld device especially smart phone has gradually become the mainstream of the market, smart phone users have increased rapidly, and major manufacturers have struggled to control the market. 3G brings many new features to handheld device such as large touch screen, video telephone, mobile TV, high speed Internet browsing. After the intensive investigation and analysis, target users can be accurately defined by requirement analyst. Collecting demands---The center of requirements analysis is mainly around get user paying close attention to the target user characteristics, emotions, habits, psychology, needs and so on, collecting user comments of advantages and disadvantages of similar products in order to listen to the real demand of target users and learn from other product strong points to offset weaknesses. It is also a nice guide for UI design. Defining specific functions---Abstract requirements must be broken down into specific function modules and development items for the formation of the document to facilitate engineers to develop. E.g.: The application of drawing in Android smart phone. After the investigation for target user, requirements can be described as once choose the function of property user can define brush thickness and shape (such as square, cap, blur and solid) and the current state of brush can be displayed in a real-time window.
B. UI Designer
If requirement analysis and task decomposition aims to nasalize the problem? UI design is to olive the problem
1) Three states of user experience
2) UI design principles of mobile phone
a) Focus on the user
• Fully aware of your user
• Design mentality of giving priority to the user
b) Display correctly
• The most common operation needs to be
Clearly seen and available by user.
• Move the less commonly used functionality to the menu.
c) Make appropriate feedback to user
Ensure that the result of the operation is clearly visible Give the users more tips of the progress, but do not to interfere with their operations
d) Rule-based behavior mode
Behavior mode follow the user抯 expectations
Use appropriate actions to strengthen function
visibility
e) Tolerate errors
3) Design GUI
GUI that is graphical user interface, greatly facilitates the users to operate facility by windows, menus, buttons and other ways. GUI design is not only the graphical result of product function, but also a graphical interface for developers. E.g.: The property function of the application of drawing in Android smart phone can be described by GUI. Then Software engineers implement the UI in accordance with GUI designed by UI designers.
Figure 4 GUI of the property function of drawing application
C. Software Engineer
The user interface of an Android screen is implemented by software engineers. It covers the basic elements that make up a screen, how to define a screen in XML and load it in the code, and various other tasks need to handle for the user interface.
1.. Hierarchy of screen elements
The basic functional unit of an Android application is the activity--an object of the class android .app Activity. An activity can do many things, but by itself it does not have a presence on the screen. To give activity a screen presence and design the UI, software engineers work with views and View-groups -- basic units of user interface expression on the Android platform.
a) View
A rectangular area on the screen that can be drawn to, handles click, keystroke, and other interaction events. A View is a base class for most components of an Activity or Dialog screen (text boxes, windows, and so on). It receives calls from its container object to draw itself, and informs its parent object about where and how big it would like to be (which may or may not be respected by the parent). The View class serves as a base class for widgets -- a set of fully implemented subclasses that draw interactive screen elements. Widgets handle their own measuring and drawing, so software engineers can use them to build UI more quickly. The list of widgets available includes Text, Edit-text, Button, Radio Button, Check-box, and Scroll View.
b) View Group
A container that holds multiple child View objects, decides where they will be and how large they can be, and calls on them to draw themselves when appropriate. Some are invisible and for layout only, while others have a UI themselves (for instance, scrolling list boxes).
c) A Tree-structured UI
On the Android platform, software engineers define an Activity's UI using a tree of view and view group nodes, as shown in the diagram below. The tree can be as simple or complex as the application need to make, and it can be build up by using Android's set of predefined widgets and layouts or custom view types that you create yourself. E.g.: The UI tree of property application of drawing in Android smart phone can be expanded in accordance with the GUI shown in the diagram below. Note that the nodes of Pen View and Propertylessness are the custom view types that you create yourself and are not the predefined widgets of Android. To create your own widget, extend View or a subclass. To use your widget in layout XML, there are two additional files for you to create. One is Java
implementation file - This is the file that implements the behavior of the widget, another is XML definition file – An XML file in res/values/ directory that defines the XML element used to instantiate your widget, and the attributes that it supports.
2.. Design the screen in XML
a) Common layout objects
Layout is a special class of View Group used to display its widgets, that is the arrangement of view hierarchy. There are the most common Layout objects used in the applications such
as follow types. Linear Layout--A Linear Layout aligns all children in a single direction .vertically or horizontally, depending on what property you set on the Linear Layout. All children are stacked one after the other, so a vertical list will only have one child per row, no matter how wide they are, and a horizontal list will only be one row high (the height of the tallest child, plus padding).
Relative Layout --Relative Layout is more flexible and suitable for implementing complex UI . Relative Layout lets children specify their position relative to each other (specified by ID), or to the parent. So software engineers can align two elements by right border, or make one below another, or centered in the screen. Absolute Layout--Absolute Layout enables
children to specify exact x/y coordinates to display on the screen, where (0, 0) is the upper
left corner, and values increase as move down or to the right. Table Layout positions its children into rows and columns.
b) Write the XML file
Based on MVC principle, UI and program logic should be separated, and thus UI structure defined in the XML file is highly recommended. Android supports XML syntax to design
screens. Android defines a large number of custom elements, each representing a specific Android View subclass. They are saved in an XML file inside the application's res/layout/
directory. Each XML file is made of tags that correspond to Android GUI classes. E.g...Combine the GUI and the view hierarchy diagram of the UI elements of drawing application, the file of property xml is written easily as following diagram.
Figure 7 File of property. xml
c) Loading the XML Resource
When Android compiles application, it compiles each file into an android. view. View resource that users can load in codeby calling set Content View (R .layout. layout_ file_ name) in your Activity. on Createimplementation. E.g. Set Content View(R.layout. property)
3.. Hooking into a screen element
Users can get a handle to a screen element by calling Activity. find View Byrd. Software engineers can use this handle to set or retrieve any values exposed by the object.
4.. Show the UI result in Android simulator
Android simulator is a new feature of Android operating system and has made interface development more flexible. The results of Android application displayed in the simulator make developers to see the UI results as same as the results displayed on the device during the design process of UI. After creating an application, writing java code, XML file, loading , and running, final visual UI results of the property of drawing application will be showed in the simulator as same as the design of GUI.
Figure 8 The final UI result
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The core tasks of representative roles in different development stages for implementing a UI of handheld device based on Android are summarized in this paper. The method and procedure implemented by software engineers not only has been discussed, but also the core principles concerned by requirement analyst and UI designer have been outlined for designing user interface better. The results obtained indicate that the methodology of UI design based on Android can implementation a UI of handheld device such as smart phone successfully. But the interaction part of Android user interface has not been analyzed. For instance, when click some buttons, Some UI notifications are exposed and called by Android and so on.
IV. CONCLUSION
User interface of handheld device is a distinctive feature of products and has comparatively longer development period. Therefore, improving the development efficiency of user interface and strengthening communication and effective cooperation between the different roles have becoming increasingly crucial. The system-oriented development methodology based on Android in this paper will be proved to be effective in practice.
REFERENCES
[1]Huang Xiaoqing, Zhan Jianfei, Tian Miao, Wu Bo, Lv Zhihu, Authority
Guide of OPhone to Application Development ,Publishing House of
Electronics Industry,Beijing,,2010,pp73-95
[2] Google Inc. Android developers. developer.android.com
[3] http://agileux.cn/?cat=8
[4] http://www.dabaoku.com/jiaocheng/zonghe/201012227848.shtml
[5] http://www.chinaup.org/docs/what-is-android.htm
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